This is page 757 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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Æ -- ÆÐRI. 757

Æ (Œ)

THIS is a double letter -- æ, compounded of á and e (a + e), being a kind of appendage to á, and œ, compounded of ó and e (o + e), being an appendage to ó. In the alphabet of Thorodd the former was marked ?, UNCERTAIN the latter &aolig;, as in vgn, UNCERTAIN f&aolig-acute;tr; later, the accent was dropped. The &aolig-acute; is also written ø, &aolig;, œ, or even o or eo, thus føti, f&aolig;ti, fœti, or eorri = œrri, whence in modern print æ, œ: most vellums write æ (a + e) and œ (o + e) respectively, which characters have been adopted in modern print. In Icel. the œ-sound was soon lost; only the earliest vellums distinguish the two sounds; then in later vellums g, UNCERTAIN &aolig; are used indiscriminately, the difference in sound being lost, the characters remaining, till at last the useless sign disappeared. Almost all the Icel. Sagas are preserved in vellums later than the time when the sounds had become confounded; the Cod. Reg. of the Grág. still keeps the distinction, owing probably to its excellent old originals; the Cod. Reg. of the Sæm. Edda uses both signs, but misplaces them, thus, Hm. 92 mgla, UNCERTAIN but f&aolig;r (pres. from fá), in the same verse. The confusion between æ and œ is purely Icelandic, for in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden the distinction has been preserved up to the present day, thus, Dan. brødre, Swed. brøder, døttre, fødder, høne, but sæde, nætter, læge, etc., Icel. bræðr, dætr, fætr, hæna, sæti, nætr, læknir, etc. The æ was sounded &e-long; (as Germ. ä, in nähe, or a lengthened Engl. a, perhaps more protracted), this sound was still heard down to the time of Arni Magnusson (end of the 17th century), see Gramm. p. xxxv, col. 2; it is now sounded like Engl. long i (time), but this sound was unknown to the ancients, except in the interjection (= æ see below) :-- we can only guess at the sound of œ; judging from the analogy of æ, it may have been like Germ. höhe, Fr. feu, only more protracted; in a diphthongal form (like æ into ) it would be oï, and indeed the word œli in its modern form auli (i.e. oïli) may be a relic of this. 2. v cannot be sounded before œ, being a u-sound; thus we have œðr, œða, from vaða, óðr; but before æ, being an a-sound, it is both sounded and written. For the umlaut see Gramm. p. xxix.

Æ, adv.; in vellums also spelt e, i.e. = g; UNCERTAIN e hverr, Blanda; þess Guðs er lifir ok e man lifa, Blanda: ea, ea standa mér augu of eld til Gunnildar, Ágrip (in a verse); freq. ey and ei, see ei, p. 117: [Goth. aiw in ni-aiw = never; A.S. â, âwa; Engl. aye] :-- for aye, ever; þat er ey eða 'æ' er aldregi þrýtr, Edda (Ups.) ii. 366; hans aldar mun æ vera at góðu getið, Hkm. 19; gott æ gömlum mönnum! Landn. (Hb.) 45; æ mon ek þora, Al. 2; at þeir komi þá æ til virðinga ok skiptinga, Grág. ii. 342; ef þú æ þegir, Hkv. Hjörv. 6; sýtir æ glöggr við gjöfum, Hm. 47; hygg ek at æ skyli má, Gm. 34; við vín eitt Óðinn æ lifir, 19; andspillis vanr þú skalt æ vera, Skm. 12. 2. with adj. or adv.; æ grænn, ever-green, Vsp. 19; æ góðr, ever-good, Eb. (in a verse); cp. ei-lífr, everlasting; æ hverr, [Scot. ever-ich] every man, Blanda; látum skútur várar fylgja æ hverju langskipi, every ship, i.e. each single, Fms. viii. 382; ok fór svá í vöxt, æ meðan (ever as long as) til vannsk, ix. 430; gékk hirðin sú er veginn ruddi, æ tveir jafn fram, two and two, x. 15; vóru menn greiddir til at taka þá æ sem þeir kæmi inn, 'ever as they came in,' i,e. one after another as they came (mod. jafnóðum og), Karl. 20; in Al. 41, hristir blóðuga e branda, read blóðuga e (i.e. æ) branda? aye shaking the bloody torches; æ jafnan, ever and aye, Sks. 193: æ ok æ, 'aye and aye,' ever and ever, Fms. vii. 270, Karl. 481, Mar., passim; æ æ kveða bandingja bifask, Fm. 7; æ síðan, for evermore, Nj. 16. 3. with compar.; var líf þeirra æ því veslara sem þat var lengra, Stj, 40; gljúfrin vóru æ því breiðari er ofarr var, became ever broader the higher it was up, Fms. viii. 51; lítið vindgol svá at merkit hóf æ (i.e. æ meir) frá stönginni, 382; æ sem fyrst, the soonest possible, Stj. 221; þú ert æ vístastr vera, the ever-wisest, i.e. by far the wisest, Vþm. 55; ok var Jómsvíkingum borit æ fullast, aye the fullest cup, i.e. the fullest cup was aye handed to them, Hkr. i. 231. 4. hvat er hér Atli æ Buðla son, 'whatever' i.e. whatever is then the matter with thee? Gkv. 3. 1. II. neg. never, for n'æ, Goth. ni-aiw; æ menn hann sjálfan um sjá, Vþm. 36.

æ, interj. dolentis; the oldest form was ai (aï), q.v.; [Germ. au, au au; but also ai, so used by Goethe, ich sterbe ai! exactly as in old Icel., cp. Grimm's Dict. i. 199; cp. Gr. GREEK] :-- ah! hann braut rif sín ok lesti öxlina, ok kvað við, ai ai! crying ah ah! Þorf. Karl. 390, v.l.; göróttr er drykkr inn, ai! Sæm. 118 (certainly so, see p. 41, col. 1 at the bottom); æ þat er veinon, Skálda 171: there is a curious play on the words á, sounded &a-long; (ovem) and , -- 'hrútr' segir hann -- þó mun eigi of skipat til ánna (the ewes, gen. pl.) þeirra er þer nefndut í gær, jarls-menn, þá er þér fenguð áverka, Fms. xi. 149: at the present day the sound made by Icel. crying out from pain is written æ, sounded aï; whereas the Dan. is aü, as in Germ.

æa, að, to say ah! to cry with pain; hón æar og hljóðar.

ÆÐA, i.e. œða, d, [óðr], to rage; þá frá ek él it ílla æða, Jd. 31: mostly, II. reflex. æðask, to become frantic, furious; hestrinn æddisk, Fms. viii. 352, v.l.; þá æddisk hann ok sleit sundr reipin, Edda 26; þat (the horse) æðisk við, Sd. 177; þá æðisk svá dýrit, at ..., 655 xxx. 5; þá æddusk þeir af angri, Str.; þeir æddusk fyr einni konu, Sól. 11; þá æddisk hann ákafliga, Barl. 105; eigi æðumk ek né ærumz, Post. 263, .

ÆÐI, i.e. œði, f. [óðr, adj.; Germ. wuth], a rage, fury; þá var hann gripinn af œði mikilli, 623. 12; œddisk hann ... ok í þeirri œði, Barl. 105; Rannveig spratt upp af æði mikilli ok mælti, Nj. 119; hvert sinn er skjót æði eðr reiði hljóp á hann, Fms. i. 15; snú heldr upp á mik æði þinni, Al. 42; reiði mín kveykir eld í œði sinni, Sks. 634; æði er úlund, Edda 110; ef reiði er eigi stillt, snýsk hón í œði, Hom. 2. madness, frenzy; ef menn sanna œði á hánum, þá bindi sá sem vill at úsekju, Gþl. 148, 150, K.Á. 214; þurs ríst ek þér, ergi, æði ok óþola, Skm. 36: the name of a spell-rune in Hdl. 46, read rannt at 'Óði' (Bugge's emendation).

æði, i.e. œði, n. [óðr, m.], nature, disposition, mind, also manners, Lat. indoles; segðu þat, ef þitt œði dugir ok þú vitir, Vþm. 20; fremðar æði, Hallfred; grunlaust æði, Ad. 2; góðs æðis, of good manners, goodwill, kindness, Hm. 4; at hann er í æði sínu rétt sem aðrir menn, Nj. 13; var hann eigi í æði sem aðrir menn, Krók. ch. 7; læti heitir æði, Edda 110; hann hafði miök á sér kaupmanns æði, Fs. 24; hann var leikinn ok hafði ungmennis æði, Fms. vii. 291; þat er ekki við þitt æði, it does not suit thee, Ld. 298; þat er meirr við þitt æði, Grett. 143 A (hæfi, id.); hún var við hans a:ði, she was a match for him, Fas. i. 143; hand-æði, lát-æði.

æði-, i.e. œði, in COMPDS: æði-fullr, adj. furious, Barl. 137. æði-regn, n. a furious rain-storm, Eb. (in a verse). æði-samliga, adv. furiously. æði-stormr, adj. a furious gale, Barl. 38, Art. 112. æði-straumr, m. a furious current, Art. 66. æði-veðr, n. a furious gale, Eg. 195, Ld. 286, Ó.H. 18. æði-verkr, m. a furious pain, Barl. 52, Bs. i. 340, Gullþ. 9. æði-vindr, m. a furious gale, Barl. 150. II. in mod. usage æði-, with adjectives = very; æði-sterkr, það er æði-heitt, very hot; æði-kaldr, bitterly cold; æði-mikið, very much.

æði-kolla, u, f. an eider-duck, very freq. in mod. usage instead of the single æðr, q.v.

æði-kollr, m. a nickname, Landn.; it prob. meant the eider-drake, cp. the preceding word.

æðr, i.e. œðr, adj. [from vaða, óð], fordable; áin var ó-œð, Bs. i. 349; hón (the river Rhine) var eigi œð, ok engi var brú eða farkostr yfir, Karl. 41.

ÆÐR, f., dat. and acc. æði, pl. æðar, æðir, Barl. 72; sannri lífs æð (dat.), 84; in mod. usage this word is a regular fem. nom. æð, dat. and acc. æð; thus also in old writers; hverja æð (acc.), Pass.; heit lífs-æð, 24. 12; but in plur. æðar, 48. 9, 10: [A.S. âdre; O.H.G. âdara; Germ. ader; Dan. aare; Swed. åder] :-- a vein; æðr sú er pulsus heitir, Al. 161; blóð hans var allt ór æðum runnit, Fas. i. 426; æði (dat.) rennandi ok keldu, Barl. 165; Hrafn tók henni æða-blóð í hendi, í æði þeirri er hann kallaði þjótandi, Bs. i. 644; æðarnar, Al. 23, 25; þær æðar, andblásnar æðar, Skálda 169. 2. metaph., allar æðar undir-djúps, 623. 33; æði (dat.) eðr brunni, Stj. 30; andalegri æði, id.; ein harðla fögr æðr eða brunnr, Stj.; upprennandi æðar (gen.), 15; með tilsogligum æðrum (i.e. æðum), Sks. 628 B: líf-æð, an artery; slag-æð, the pulse; hjart-æð, also vats-æð. æða-blóð, n. a blood-letting, Bs. i. 644.

æðr, f., acc. and dat. æði, [Engl. eider; see dún], an eider-duck, Skálda (Gl.); gæs, andir né æðar, Grág. ii. 347; þú sátt val bera æði í hamra, Fas. i. 485 (Hb.); svá var mörg æðr í eyjunni, at varla mátti ganga fyrir eggjum, Þorf. Karl. 412. COMPDS: æðar-dún, m. eider-down, æðar-varp, n. the egg-laying and hatching of eider-ducks: in local names, Æð-ey, in north-western Icel.; whence Æðeyingr, m. a man from Æ., Sturl. ii. 142.

æðra, u, f. [no doubt derived from æðr, f., which word originally meant nerves and veins] :-- fear, despondency, despair; verðit vel við ok mælit eigi æðru, Nj. 200; svá at þeir megi eigi á oss finna æðru, Ó.H. 214; þá kemr æðra í brjóst Þorkatli, Fbr. 37. æðru-orð, n. a word of fear; in the ancient code of honour a man was never to utter a word of despondency or fear, to do so was thought to be ill-omened; engi maðr skyldi þar æðru-orð mæla eðr kvíða, hvegi úvænt sem þeim hyrfði, Fms. xi. 76; enginn flýði ór sínu rúmi eðr mælti æðru-orð, i. 421; 'vér munum allir Óðin gista í kveld,' -- þatt eitt æðru-orð mælti Hjálmarr, 422; eigi man ek þá lög Jómsvíkinga ef ek kvíði við bana eða mæla ek æðru-orð, eitt sinn skal hverr deyja, Fms. xi. 148.

æðrask, að, to falter for fear, lose heart; þó er þat dýr svá, at ek hefi nokkut helzt æðrask við at eiga, Fms. ii. 101; minnr æðraðisk hann at fara úr landi ok sækja eign sína en þú görir nú, 245; þú æðrask mikinn mann en gambrar yfir litlum, Glúm. 332; eigi skyldim vér nú æ. of mjök at leggja til bardaga við Ólaf konung, Fms. x. 346; ok varð þat drjúgara at þeir æðruðusk, viii. 376; en ef vér æðrumk nú nokkut, þá ..., Ó.H. 214; kalla ek þann ykkarn ekki at manni vera, er nokkut æðrask í því, at vér takim hann af lífdögum, ef hann ferr í hendr oss, 61.

ÆÐRI, i.e. œðri, compar. higher, superl. œztr, highest (spelt eozt, Rb. 1812. 51; the mod. spelling is æðstr); it has no positive: [this word is the same as the Goth. auhuma, auhumists, h and þ being interchanged; the usages in the Icel. N.T., when compared with the Goth., shew the identity of the words beyond doubt, e.g. æðstu prestar, Matth. xxvi. 59;