This is page 761 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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ÆTTGENGR -- Ö. 761

ætt-gengr, adj. . characteristic of one's family, inborn in the blood; e-m er e-t ættgengt, Eg. 226, Ó.H. 144, Sturl. i. 116.

ætt-góðr, adj. of good family, Art. 97, Lex. Poët.

ætt-gæði, n. goodness of origin, rank, high birth, Magn. 434.

ætt-göfgi, f. nobleness of birth.

ætt-göfugr, adj. of noble extraction, Lex. Poët., freq.

ætt-hagi, a, m. = átthagi (p. 47), Fms. vii. 134, ix. 526, Þiðr. 149.

ætt-hringr, m. lineage, pedigree, Landn. (App.) 356, 357.

ættingi, a, m. a kinsman (= áttungr II), Str. 16, 48, Stj. 332, Karl. 318, freq. in mod. usage.

ættingr, m. a quarter of the heaven, = átt (or ætt); af ættingi vestrs í ætting suðrs, 732. 4.

ætt-jörð, f. a native county, O.H.L. 41, freq. in mod. usage; cp. áttjörð.

ætt-kvísl, f. a line, branch of a family; í annari ættkvíslinni, Gþl. 237.

ætt-land, n. one's native land, Fms. i. 82, vi. 21, xi. 437, Lex. Poët.

ætt-leggr, m. a stem, lineage, Stj. 43; trygð ok skeytt undir mik ok minn ættlegg, my lineage, N.G.L. ii. 97.

ætt-leiða, d, to lead into one's lineage, adopt, N.G.L. ii. 80 sqq., D.N. passim.

ætt-leiðing, f. adoption, the rite is described in N.G.L. i. 31; ættleiðings sonr, an adopted son, Jb. 133.

ætt-leiðingr, m. an adopted person, N.G.L. ii. 80.

ætt-leifð, f. a patrimony, of land, estate (see leifð); þeir menn hafa setið yfir eignum várum ok ættleifð, Fms. i. 223, x. 280, Orkn.; á órar ættleifðir, our native land, Sturl. ii. 55 (in a verse), passim.

ætt-lera, adj. = ættleri; lítils háttar ok ættlera, Fb. i. 472; sú þjóð mundi mjök vera æ. ok kunna ekki at berjask, Bret. 189.

ætt-leri, a, m. a degenerate person, discredit to a family, Al. 2, Stj. 81; æ. ok skræfa, Fms. ii. 47; lítils háttar konungr ok mjök æ., 292.

ætt-liðr, m. a link in a pedigree, Post.

ætt-menn, m. pl. kinsmen, Stj. 64, 414, 496, 502, Fms. i. 6, Ó.H., and passim.

ætt-nafn, n. a family name, i.e. a (Christian) name usual in a family; hví léztu sveininn Magnús heita? ekki er þat várt æ., Ó.H. 123.

ætt-niðr, m. a descendant, Lex. Poët.

ætt-rif, n. = ættleggr; vórt ættrif ... æ. þeirra Adams ok Evu, 655 xi. 1, 15; or ættrifi Arons, Hom. (St.)

ætt-rækinn, adj. pious towards one's family.

ætt-rækni, f. piety towards one's kindred.

ætt-smár, adj. of low extraction, Fms. iv. 26, vii. 166, Eg. 23.

ætt-stórr, adj. high-born, Nj. 192, Eg. 99, Fms. vii. 103, Ísl. ii. 5.

ætt-stuðill, m. a 'family prop,' = áttstafr, Lex. Poët.

ætt-stœri, n. greatness of extraction, Barl. 189.

ættum-góðr, adj. = ættgóðr, Lex. Poët.

ætt-víg, n. a law term, manslaughter committed within one's own family, the slaying one's own kinsman, Fms. x. 152, Orkn. 24, Ld. 258, Sighvat (Ó.H. in a verse).

ætt-vísi, f. knowledge of genealogies, Fms. vii. 102, Bs. i. 91, Bárð. 164 (áttvísi, id., Skálda 161, 169).

ætzka, u, f. [ætt], relationship, kinship; hann var nokkut í æzku við erkibiskup, Fms. ix. 390.

ætzkaðr, part. native (cp. Lat. oriundus]; æzkaðr ór héraði því er heitir ..., Greg. 58, Post. (Unger) 227 (ætzkaðr); þaðan æ., Hom. 107; hón var æzkuð ór Mostr, Hkr. i. 118; peir er æzkaðir váru um Kjöl norðan, 137; hann var etzcaðr (sic) of Ögðum, Ó.H. 49, 50.

æ-verandi, part. everlasting, Hom. 107.

æ-verðligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), everlasting, D.N.

ÆXA, i.e. œxa, [causal of vaxa, óx], to make to wax, cause to increase; œxa sköp, Am. 2; æxtu öldrykkju, 75; með fé þat eða þat er hann hefir af því œxt, Grág. i. 96; nú hefir þeim fleirum œxt verit féit eða gefit, 173; vér höfum mikinn auð œxtan á smíðum várum, Post. 223.

œxl, n. (mod. æxli), an excrescence, medic.; hón hafði œxl mikit ... var hönd hans heil, en horfit æxlit, 655 xxii. B. 1; freq. in mod. usage.

æxla = æxa, i.e. œxla (spelt eoxla, Rb. 104) :-- to make to increase; þat æxlti mjök úþokka þeirra, Ver. 16; æxla ríki sitt, Ing. 6; mínki heldr enn ægsli (sic) minn vöxt, Thom. 378; sem hér megu líkamligan eld œxla, Greg. 77; þeir æxltu (æxlztu) mikit rétt þeirra, Bs. i. 157; æxla göngu sína, Rb. 104. 2. to eke out, multiply, esp. to make to increase by breeding; hans atkvæði. má ekki æxla, Skálda 168; hann létzk mega æxla sér fé af bauginum, ef hann héldi, Edda 73; en ef þau æxla fé ór öreigð, Grág. i. 335; af aurum sínum æxla þeir hvern dag andlegt verkkaup, Greg. 32; Heliseus æxlaði fæðslu, Stj.; æxla ættir sínar, Sks. 12 new Ed.: and in mod. usage, æxla kyn sitt, to increase, multiply. 3. reflex. in the mod. phrase, það hefir æxlast svona, or, það hefir æxlast vel úr því, it has turned thus, of getting better from a hopeless state.

æxling, f. an increase, Greg. 26; til æxlingar kvala sinna, Post. 209.

ÆZLI, n. [áta, from eta, át; Dan. aadsel; cp. Germ. aas], carrion; örnu æzli fegna, Gkv. 2. 8; nú er örninn gamli floginn á æzlit, Eb. 188; þar sem nóg er æzlið, Fas. ii. 265 (Ed. ægslað, æxlið, v.l., erroneously).

ö (ø)

THIS letter properly consists of two vowels, different in sound and in origin; an a-vowel, an 'umlaut' of a, and nearly related to it; and a u-vowel, nearly related to the letters o, u, and y: in modern Danish these two ö-sounds are still distinguished in pronunciation, the one being open almost like Engl. i before r, as in fir, the other closed like eu in French feu: Rask and Petersen, the founders of the philology of the Danish tongue, were the first to give separate symbols for these two sounds; the first they marked ö, the second ø (börn, høre). The modern Icel. knows only one sound, answering to the Danish ö; but that it was not so in old days may be proved from the vellums and from the grammarians. Thorodd marks the two sounds respectively by &aolig; and ø. Most of the vellums are very loose in their spelling, marking at random o, &aolig;, au, (?), UNCERTAIN ø (oll, &aolig;ll, aull, arll UNCERTAIN): phonetically ø stands exactly in the same relation to œ, the umlaut of ó, as ö to &aolig-acute;, the umlaut of á, so that ø and ö are the short, œ and &aolig-acute; respectively the corresponding long vowels; ø and œ, ö and &aolig-acute; being two pairs of sounds, just as are o ó, u ú; cp. 'Goðrøði' and 'góð rœði,' Skálda, Thorodd: in very old vellums, e.g. the Rb. Cod. 1812, the ø is often marked eo, thus keomr = kømr, eoxn = øxn = yxn, geora = gjöra or gøra: in Norse vellums ø is often written œ, e.g. smœr = smjör, confounding the two sounds, ø and œ. A few good vellums keep the distinction in the main, not as Thorodd's alphabet does, but generally by writing ey for ø (this must not be confounded with the diphthong ey); among those vellums are the Cod. Reg. of Sæm. Edda, the Cod. Acad. of the Hkr. (now lost), the Cod. Fris., the (lost) vellum of Rafns S. (see Bs. i. pref. lxix), although none of them strictly follows the rule; only a few Editions (e.g. Prof. Unger's Edit, of the Hkr.) have tried to observe the distinction; most Editions print ö throughout. We shall now try to give a list of the chief words and forms which have the ø. The chief guide in doing this is twofold, the ey of the vellums and the change of ø into e or é, by which a triple form arises, ø, ey, and e, of which ø and ey, no doubt, are mere variations: I. the ø is either, 1. the umlaut of o; in the plurals, sønir seynir senir, hnøtr hnetr, støðr steðr (sonr, hnot, stoð): in the compar. and superl., nørðri neyrðri nerðri, nørztr neyrztr nerztr, øfri efri, øfstr efstr (from norðr, of): in the subj., þørði þerði, þølði þeylði (Fms. viii. 380), møndi (from þora, þola, monu or munu), bjøggi beyggi, hjøggi heyggi (from búa, bjoggu, höggva, hjoggu): the presents, kømr, trøðr treyðr treðr, søfr sefr (from koma, troða, sofa): the prets., frøri freyri freri, gnøri gneyri gneri, søri seri, sløri sleri, róri reyri reri, kjøri keyri keri, snøri sneyri sneri, grøri greyri greri (see Gramm. p. xxiii): the words øðli eyðli eðli, øðla (a lizard) eyðla eðla, høllzti heylzti hellzti: in -røðr (Goðrøðr, see Thorodd), -frøðr -freyðr -freðr (Hallfrøðr Hallfreyðr Hallfreðr), hnøri hneyri hneri, øxn eyxn exn, køri keri (a probe), kjør (a choice) keyr ker, kjøptr keyptr keptr kjaptr: ørendi eyrendi erendi: the prefix particle, ør- eyr- er-: the words kjøt ket, smjør smér, mjøl mél (prop. køt, smør, møl), gørsemar gersemar, ørr and eyrr, a scar, Fms. viii. 275, v.l.; hrør and hreyr, heyrum and hørum (p. 261, col. 2). 2. in the case of roots in -vi or -vj, where both v and j struggle for the umlaut, the result is an ø; in this case even a radical a changes into ø (this was for the first time observed by the late Danish scholar Lyngbye), thus, gørva geyrva gera (from garvian), gørr geyrr gerr (= ready), gørvi gervi, gørsemi gersemi, øx eyx ex (Goth. aqwisi), sørvi seyrvi. This is esp. freq. in those roots which have g or k for the middle consonant, in which cases the root vowel, either a or i, changes into ø; as in the verbs sløkva, søkkva, støkkva, hrøkkva, kløkkva, sløngva, høggva, hnøggva, þrøngva; in the adjectives, døkkr, nøkviðr, gløggr, hnøggr, snøggr; similarly with the orthography ey for ø, -- heygg (caedo), Am. 39; deyqva hramns, Skv. 2. 20; at kleycqvi Guðrun, Am. 58; klecqua, Akv. 24; hví er þér steyct ór landi, Hkv. Hjörv. 31; nú mun hón seyqvaz, Vsp. 62; seycstu nú gýgr (sink thou now!), Helr. 14; sleyngdi svá silfri, Am. 46; steyccr lúðr fyrir, Hkv. 2. 2; sýtir æ glæyggr við gjöfum, Hm. 48; gleyggr, Skv. 1. 7; gleggr, 291; neykðan (nudum), Am. 49; neycqviðr, Hm. 49; Beyggvir = böggvir, Ls. 45; røkvið and rekvið, Hkv. Hjörv. 35, Bugge (pref. ix); reykr = røkr, Fms. iv. 70: the word rekkja (a bed) is also spelt reykkja, and even rjukja, Art. (Ed. Kölbing) 64; vekka and vökvi. Phonetically connected with this change, but in a reverse order, is the change in the words nekkverr nökkurr nokkurr and eingi öngr öngvan, etc. In all the above instances the ey means ø, and is merely substituted for that sound, and is accordingly altogether different from the diphthong ey, see p. 114, col. 2, l. 15 sqq. 3. one may also assume an ø in the few instances where and jo, and jo and y interchange; in mjölk and mjolk (milk), mjok or mjök and mykill, þjökkr and þykkr, mjörkvi and myrkvi. This ø of the ancient tongue is the parent of the e in several modern words and forms, e.g. in the presents, sefr, kemr, treðr, heggr, sekkr, stekkr, hrekkr; in the preterites, greri, snéri, réri; the compar., efri, efstr, helztr; in gera, erindi, frerar, and freðinn: so also in the words két, mél, smér; and in inverse order, in nokkurr, in öngvir, öngvan, öngum, from einginn; cp. Dan. sen